Water quality is very important in fish farming as poor quality water can affect the health and growth of fish. It is important that farmers pay attention to the water chemical and physical factors.

Water quality can quickly decline in fish ponds as fish use the water to live, feed, reproduce, grow and excrete waste into. Fish farmers who wish to be successful should therefore understand the quality of their water, the needs of the fish and how to manage water quality factors.

Controlling temperature is very important for fish welfare as it can affect their behavior, feeding, growth, and reproduction. Fish live and are totally dependent on the water they live in for all their needs.

Different fish species have different and specific range of water quality aspects (temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, salinity, hardness, etc.) within which they can survive, grow and reproduce.

Within these tolerance limits, each species has its own optimum range, that is, the range within which it performs best. It is therefore very important for fish producers to ensure that the physical and chemical conditions of the water remain, as much as possible, within the optimum range of the fish under culture all the time.